Tob Control. 2013 Nov 6. Epub ahead of print
Authors Nargis N, Fong GT, Chaloupka FJ, Li Q.

Background Increasing tobacco taxes to increase price is a proven tobacco control measure. This article investigates how smokers respond to tax and price increases in their choice of discount brand cigarettes versus premium brands. Objective To estimate how increase in the tax rate can affect smokers&#39 choice of discount brands versus premium brands. Methods Using data from International Tobacco Control surveys in Canada and the USA, a logit model was constructed to estimate the probability of choosing discount brand cigarettes in response to its price changes relative to premium brands, controlling for individual specific demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and regional effects. The self reported price of an individual smoker is used in a random effects regression model to impute price and to construct the price ratio for discount and premium brands for each smoker, which is used in the logit model. Findings An increase in the ratio of price of discount brand cigarettes to the price of premium brands by 0.1 is associated with a decrease in the probability of choosing discount brands by 0.08 in Canada. No significant effect is observed in case of the USA. Conclusions The results of the model explain two phenomena (1) the widened price differential between premium and discount brand cigarettes contributed to the increased share of discount brand cigarettes in Canada in contrast to a relatively steady share in the USA during 2002 2005 and (2) increasing the price ratio of discount brands to premium brands which occurs with an increase in specific excise tax may lead to upward shifting from discount to premium brands rather than to downward shifting. These results underscore the significance of studying the effectiveness of tax increases in reducing overall tobacco consumption, particularly for specific excise taxes.


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Article: agent orange brand cigarettes

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By the FAMILY SMOKING PREVENTION AND TOBACCO CONTROL ACT, the FDA has the job of “regulating” “tobacco.” Quotes are needed, as neither term adequately tells the story. That is, the FDA isn’t regulating the cigarette industry it’s protecting it. Except for plain natural tobacco, the cigarettes it “regulates” are usually no more tobacco than drainage from Fukishima is just “water.”

According to the U.S. GAO, tobacco is the sixth most pesticide intensive crop, but you wouldn’t know that from this Act. The word “pesticide” shows up just four times three times if you count one double reference as one. Those citations are copied below. Nothing is said about banning or warning about the residues of those pesticides or how they interact with the few cigarette ingredients (some flavorings) that the FDA will address. Added aromas, preservatives, humectants, adhesives, burn accelerants, addiction enhancement substances, etc., are not discussed. The FDA will also ignore menthol, which numbs one to irritants so that one can painlessly smoke industrial irritants.

The word “chlorine,” relating to any number of tobacco pesticides and to chlorine bleached cigarette paper, is not mentioned even once, even though chlorine is the source of dioxins in smoke from typical contaminated products. This is remarkable since symptoms of dioxin exposure are identical to many, perhaps most, ailments said to be “smoking related” (i.e., related to victim’s behavior). The well known (except to the FDA) immune suppressing effect of dioxins, of course, applies to every “smoking related” illness.

Needless to say, the word “dioxin” isn’t here either, despite the fact that inhalation of dioxin, like through smoke of chlorine contaminated cigarettes, is the worst possible exposure route because of the high efficiency of the lungs to bring dioxins into the blood stream and to fatty tissues where it remains, accumulates, and kills.

“NB” comments and some highlighting accompany the excerpts below.